The substrates are simply and quickly cleaned using contact cleaning sticky rollers, static neutralization of particles clinging to the film substrate, high pressure air blow off, and vacuuming.

The transparent conductive adhesive is applied to the substrate.  This transparent conductive adhesive took years to develop.  This adhesive is completely compatible with the conductive coating, and actually maintains the conductivity of the coating over time.  This adhesive forms an adequate bond between the coating and the FR4 circuit board.  This bond is reinforced by a separate non-conductive adhesive with much greater bonding strength.

The liquid crystal & additives mixture is applied to the substrate.  Then the 2 substrates are laminated together in a proprietary laminating station just outside of the view of the camera.

The liquid crystal and additives mixture is cured relatively quickly.  Older mixtures required long curing times, because the liquid crystal mixtures absorbed much of the ultraviolet curing energy.  Our proprietary mixture cures relatively quickly.  As the mixture cures, the printed mixture goes from colorless to white color in appearance, as the coating becomes light scattering, as the index of refraction mismatch between the liquid crystal and the additives becomes greater as the additives cure and their index of refraction changes substantially relative to the index of refraction of the liquid crystals.


After curing, the devices are immediately functional.  Here is an ordinary function generator generating a function identical in frequency and voltage as a printed circuit board powered by batteries.  Since the devices are immediately functional, they can be tested real time, for improved quality control.  Note that the excitation rate changes during this video.